At around 3 pm he met newspaper proprietor Lord Rothermere, who had recently been appointed as Air Minister by David Lloyd George for political reasons. On each occasion Trenchard and his staff officers, supported by Christopher Bullock,[118][119] worked to show that the R.A.F. Hugh Montague Trenchard was born at 6 Haines Hill in Taunton, England on 3 February 1873. [91], Trenchard had many reasons for not accepting any of these posts, which he saw as titular, with little value and lacking practical authority. Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard GCB OM GCVO DSO (3 February 1873 – 10 February 1956) was a British officer who was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force. team, with which the High Speed Flight was formed in preparation for the 1927 race. After his success at shooting, he set about establishing a battalion polo team. [73] However, the bombing from the air had little effect due to limited weight payload capacity, and the Royal Artillery disregarded the information provided by the R.F.C. For the first, the Battle of Britain Chapel in Westminster Abbey, he headed a committee with Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding to raise funds for the furnishing of the chapel and for the provision of a stained glass window. In 1922 the RAF Staff College at Andover was established to provide air force specific training to the R.A.F. In July the 23rd Mounted Infantry was recalled to Middleburg four hundred miles to the south, and after the trek Trenchard occupied himself with polo and race meetings. He also instigated the University Air Squadron scheme, and in 1925 the first three U.A.S. [3] He subsequently failed the Woolwich examinations twice and was then relegated to applying for the Militia which had lower entry standards. In January 1918 he became Britain’s first chief of air staff, though he resigned the post in April of that year. [34] He was promoted to brevet major in August 1902. Trenchard replied that he could not take up the appointment as Sykes was currently in post. Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard, GCB, OM, GCVO, DSO (3 February 1873 – 10 February 1956) was a British officer … He was to serve as the head of the R.F.C. Finally, he had an unswerving belief in the importance of offensive action. He held the post of chief of air staff until he became the first marshal of the RAF in 1927, and he retired from the service in 1929. [134], After he retired from the military, he worked as a director of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, largely disappearing from public life. 1873 Hugh Montague Trenchard was born at Windsor Lodge on Haines Hill in Taunton on 3 February 1873. [131], Trenchard continued as Chief of the Air Staff until 1 January 1930. Being of the infantry, his regiment had no history of playing polo and there were many obstacles to overcome. After meeting with Haig, Trenchard wrote to Rothermere, accepting the post. Around a week later he won the St. Moritz Tobogganing Club's Freshman and Novices' Cups for 1901; a remarkable triumph for a man who had been unable to walk unaided only a few days before. Trenchard bore Sykes some animosity and their working relationship was troubled. [81], The New Year saw Trenchard made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, and he was appointed Chief of the Air Staff[35] on the newly formed Air Council. Rothermere offered Trenchard the post of Chief of the Air Staff and before Trenchard could respond explained that Trenchard's support would be useful to him as he was about to launch a press campaign against Sir Douglas Haig and Sir William Robertson, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff. Command of the Administrative Wing was given to Lieutenant Colonel E B Ashmore. On the third day he regained consciousness, but spent most of that day sleeping. The request appealed to Beatty's sense of fair play, and he agreed to let Trenchard be until the end of 1920. However, before the Brigade could reach the plain it had to pass through undulating terrain which favoured the Boer guerrilla tactics. [48], When he arrived at Thomas Sopwith's flying school at Brooklands, he told Sopwith than he only had 10 days to gain his aviator's certificate. During his formative years, Trenchard struggled academically, failing many examinations and only just succeeding in meeting the minimum standard for commissioned service in the British Army. He has been described as the Father of the Royal Air Force. [156], In May 1940, after the failure of the Norwegian Campaign, Trenchard used his position in the Lords to attack what he saw as the Government's half-hearted prosecution of the war. He hobbled with the aid of sticks down the gangplank where his concerned parents met him. After Trenchard's column had suffered casualties, the ambush party withdrew. On 17 July 1920, they were married at St. Margaret's Church in Westminster. [40] He was appointed to the Distinguished Service Order in 1906[41] and was Commandant with the temporary rank of lieutenant colonel from 1908 onwards. [23], In December 1900 he returned to England, arriving by hospital ship at Southampton. [72], In early January 1915 Haig summoned Trenchard to explain what might be achieved in the air war. on the Western Front was characterised by three priorities. [13] While every regiment was required to undertake a period of duty beyond the Khyber Pass, for the most part conditions of peace and prosperity were evident and he was able to engage in various sporting activities. His lung was not fully healed, causing him pain and leaving him breathless. only to provide flying training. On 5 October the 6th Brigade, including Trenchard, departed Krugersdorp with the intention of drawing the Boers into battle on the plain where they might be defeated. After initially being removed from 'Hill Lands',[7] the young Trenchard was only able to return thanks to the charity of his relatives. In 1920 he successfully argued that it should take the lead during the 1920 conflict between British forces and Somaliland dervishes. Trenchard entered the army in 1893 and served in the South African War and later in Nigeria. He began to speak privately against Hankey who, for his part, had no liking for Trenchard in return. Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard GCB OM GCVO DSO (3 February 1873 – 10 February 1956) was a British officer who was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force. [167] From 1954, during the last two years of his life, Trenchard was partially blind and physically frail. "[145] By 1936 the idea of bolstering the Committee of Imperial Defence had become a popular point of debate and Trenchard presented his arguments in the House of Lords. During his time in West Africa, Trenchard commanded the Southern Nigeria Regiment for several years. provided good value for money, and was required for the long-term strategic security of the United Kingdom. [146], With Hankey and his ban on inter-service disputes gone, the Navy again campaigned for their own air service. In early 1894 he won the All-India Rifle Championship. Thirdly, Rothermere and Trenchard disagreed on nominees for senior appointments in the R.A.F. He occupied himself during the routine of garrison life with playing polo and he took up hunting. Accordingly, the British sought to raise mounted infantry units and Trenchard's polo-playing experiences led to him being selected to raise a mounted unit for service west of Johannesburg. During September and early October 1900, it was involved in several skirmishes in the surrounding countryside. Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard, GCB, OM, GCVO, DSO (3 February 1873 – 10 February 1956) was a British officer who was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force. Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes. 'Hill Lands' prepared its pupils for Army commissions and, as before, Trenchard did not apply himself to his studies,[8][9] preferring sports (rugby in particular) and practical joking. Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard GCB OM GCVO DSO (3 February 1873 – 10 February 1956) was a British Army officer who commanded the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) from August 1915 to January 1918. He was subsequently appointed as second in command of the Central Flying School. 's strength, and over the next two years, 25 auxiliary squadrons were created. Although he did well at arithmetic, he struggled with the rest of the curriculum. [100], After two months on the R.A.F. [56] He paid particular attention to ensuring that skills were acquired in practical topics such as map reading, signalling and engine mechanics. [1] He was the third child and second son of Henry Montague Trenchard and his wife Georgiana Louisa Catherine Tower Skene. On the following Monday, Trenchard was summoned to Buckingham Palace where King George listened to his account of the events which caused him to resign. [35], Following the end of the Boer War, Trenchard was seconded to stay in South Africa,[36] but he applied for service in the West African Frontier Force and was granted the position of Deputy Commandant of the Southern Nigeria Regiment, with the promise that he was entitled to lead all regimental expeditions. Kitchener had received intelligence on their location and he hoped to damage the morale of Boer commandos at large by sending a small group of men to capture their political leadership. [3] In the autumn, Newall was replaced by Portal and Dowding was succeeded by Douglas. [71] After the First Army under General Haig came into being in December 1914, the First Wing provided support to its operations. Amazon.com: Vintage photo of Hugh Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard: Entertainment Collectibles Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard, GCB, OM, GCVO, DSO (3 February 1873 – 10 February 1956) was a British officer who was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force. Immediately after he had relinquished his appointment, he was created Baron Trenchard, of Wolfeton in the County of Dorset,[132] entering the House of Lords, becoming the RAF's first peer. [76] In any case, this did not stop his promotion to full colonel in June 1915. [19], Trenchard's company came under the command of the 6th (Fusilier) Brigade which was headquartered at Krugersdorp. [164] The United States Air Force was formed as an independent branch of the American Armed Forces in 1947. would be able to rescue the stranded civilians. [99] Trenchard departed France in mid-November 1918 and returned to England to take a holiday. Through her generosity she arranged for him to see a specialist who said that he needed to spend several months in Switzerland where the air was likely to be of benefit to his lung. Marshal of the RAF The Viscount Trenchard of Wolfeton Hugh Montague b: 3 Feb 1873 r: 1 Jan 1930 d: 10 Feb 1956 's highest rank. Henderson offered Trenchard command of the soon-to-be created First Wing. [155] In April, Sir Samuel Hoare, who was again Secretary of State for Air, unsuccessfully attempted to get him to come back as Chief of the Air Staff. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [180] During his life, Trenchard strongly argued that the bomber was the key weapon of an air force, and he is recognized today as one of the early advocates of strategic bombing,[3] and one of the architects of the British policy on imperial policing through air control. Jump to ... For other uses, see Trenchard (disambiguation). [93], After a period of what was officially termed "special duty" in France, Trenchard was appointed General Officer Commanding of the Independent Air Force on 15 June 1918, with his headquarters in Nancy, France. Hankey responded by accusing Trenchard of "trying to stab him in the back. [161][162], During the war, the Trenchard elder stepson, John, was killed in action in Italy, and his younger stepson Edward was killed in a flying accident. Neither he or his family could afford this expense, and he was too embarrassed to explain the situation. In early 1920 he suggested that it could even be used to violently suppress if necessary "industrial disturbances, or risings" in the United Kingdom itself, following on from his experience in such matters in successfully quelling the troop mutiny at Southampton Docks in the previous year. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. In this regard he was unsuccessful, and he was succeeded in France by Major-General John Salmond. [59] In September 1913 he was appointed Assistant Commandant,[35] and promoted to temporary lieutenant-colonel. and the Royal Naval Air Service. [3], At the age of 10 he was sent to board at Allens Preparatory School near Botley in Hampshire. He entered the Army in 1893 and served in South and West Africa. However, when he tried to rise from his bed he discovered that he was unable to put weight on his feet, leading him to suspect that he was partially paralysed. [138] He retired in November 1935,[139] in his final few months as Police Commissioner having been awarded the Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order. Trenchard seriously considered the offer, but declined it by letter two days later, chiefly because he felt that the job required a degree of tact which he lacked. Boredom saw him take up bobsleighing as it did not require much use of his legs. In December 1915 when Douglas Haig was appointed as Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Haig and Trenchard re-established their partnership, this time at a higher level. [160], He continued to exert considerable influence over the Royal Air Force. [96], In September 1918, Trenchard's Force indirectly supported the American Air Service during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel, attacking German airfields in that sector of the front, along with supply depots and rail lines. [114], Late 1919 saw Trenchard created a baronet and granted £10,000 for his war services. During his tenure he instigated several reforms, including limiting membership of the Police Federation, introducing limited terms of employment,[137] and the creation of separate career paths for the lower and higher ranks akin to the military system of officer and non-commissioned career streams. [68] Trenchard's discomfort was relieved when in December 1914 Kitchener ordered that Henderson resume command of the Royal Flying Corps in the Field. Trenchard entered the army in 1893 and served in the South African War and later in Nigeria. Trenchard's letter was circulated among the Cabinet, with a vindictive response written by Rothermere. The remainder of the company were to close in on his signal. Towards the end of the month Churchill offered him a job that would have seen him acting as a general officer commanding all British land, air and sea forces at home should an invasion occur. However, without asking any questions, Lady Dudley presented him with a cheque to cover the expense. On hearing this Trenchard flatly refused the position, being personally loyal to Haig and antipathetic to political intrigue. [32], Trenchard spent the remainder of 1901 on patrolling duties, and in early 1902 he was appointed acting commander of the 23rd Mounted Infantry Regiment. Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard, (3 February 1873 – 10 February 1956) was a British officer who was instrumental … [107] Once he had recovered, he proposed marriage to Katherine Boyle, who refused. Also with him were several British NCOs and nine mixed-race guides. [69] The R.F.C. The Balfour Report of 1921, the Geddes Axe of 1922, and the Salisbury Committee of 1923 all found in favour of the R.A.F. [37], Once established, Trenchard spent the next six years on various expeditions to the interior patrolling, surveying and mapping an area of 10,000 square miles[15] which later came to be known as Biafra. He was commissioner of the London metropolitan police from 1931 to 1935. He spent the next fortnight at a Mayfair nursing home for disabled officers which was run by the Red Cross. While fighting the Boers, Trenchard was critically wounded and as a result of his injury, he lost a lung, was partially paralysed and returned to Great Britain. Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, Companion of the Distinguished Service Order, Hugh Trenchard as commander of the Royal Flying Corps in France, Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire, 1920 conflict between British forces and Somaliland dervishes, RAF was given control of all British Forces in Iraq, Hugh Trenchard as Metropolitan Police Commissioner, List of titles and honours of Hugh Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard, "Dwarsvlei, a Highveld farm: Forgotten battlefield of the Anglo-Boer War", "British Military Aviation in 1914 – Part 3", "Marshal of the RAF The Viscount Trenchard of Wolfeton", "Overseas Commands – Iraq, India and the Far East", "The Schneider Trophy – 70th Anniversary", "Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard", "From Spitfire to Eurofighter – The RAF's Legacy", "Taunton memorial to RAF founder Hugh Montague Trenchard", "Permanent memorial to Taunton-born founder of the RAF", "Taunton's Northern Inner Distributor Road (NIDR) renamed Trenchard Way at ceremony", "Trenchard Family Crest and Name History", Air of Authority – A History of RAF Organisation – Marshal of the RAF The Viscount Trenchard of Wolfeton, USAF Association Magazine – Trenchard at the Creation, First World War.com – Who's Who: Hugh Trenchard, British Ministry of Defence – Trenchard: Father of the RAF, Trenchard in Royal Scots Fusiliers uniform, Sir Hugh Montague Trenchard in RAF Uniform, Trenchard with Price Henry at an aerial pageant at Hendon, Lord and Lady Sykes with Churchill and Trenchard at Hendon, Trenchard at the opening of the Metropolitan Police laboratory at Hendon, Trenchard talking to his son, also named Hugh, at Eton, Lord Trenchard speaking to Air Marshal Sir Peter Drummond, Trenchard speaks with USAF General Leon Johnson, Harold MacMillan unveiling a statue of Trenchard by the Embankment, Viscount Trenchard of Wolfeton by Beresford, Broadcast of Lord Trenchard's appeal made on behalf of the RAF Benevolent Fund in 1941, Commander of the Royal Flying Corps in France, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hugh_Trenchard,_1st_Viscount_Trenchard&oldid=993795060, British Army personnel of the Second Boer War, Commissioners of Police of the Metropolis, Companions of the Distinguished Service Order, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Knights Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, Recipients of the Croix de Guerre 1914–1918 (France), Recipients of the Croix de guerre (Belgium), Recipients of the Distinguished Service Medal (US Army), Recipients of the Order of the Two Rivers, Recipients of the Order of Saint Stanislaus (Russian), 1st class, Recipients of the Order of St. Anna, 3rd class, Recipients of the Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st class, Royal West African Frontier Force officers, Viscounts in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, Foreign recipients of the Distinguished Service Medal (United States), Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1922 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1922 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 15:10. He has been described as the Father of the Royal Air Force. [74] Prior to the British First Army's offensives at Ypres and Aubers Ridge in April and May, the First Wing's crews flew reconnaissance sorties using aerial cameras over the German lines. In 1918, he briefly served as the first Chief of the Air Staff before taking up command of the Independent Air Force in France. [63] In order to begin the task of creating these squadrons, Trenchard commandeered his old civilian training school at Brooklands, and then used its aircraft and equipment as a starting point for the establishment of new training schools elsewhere. 's routinely offensive strategy resulted in the loss of many of its air crews and machines, and some doubted its military validity. After three weeks he had shown some improvement and was moved to Johannesburg, where he made further progress. [24] He hobbled with the aid of sticks down the gangplank where his concerned parents met him. [181], In 2018 a permanent memorial to him was commissioned as part of the celebrations for 100 years of the R.A.F. [5] The country setting meant that he could enjoy an outdoor life, including spending time hunting rabbits and other small animals with the rifle he was given on his eighth birthday. Trenchard's briefly written statement of the essentials required met with Churchill's approval, and he insisted that Trenchard take the appointment, Trenchard returning to the Air Ministry in mid-February and formally taking up post as Chief of the Air Staff on 31 March 1919. [128], On 1 January 1927, Trenchard was promoted from air chief marshal to marshal of the Royal Air Force,[94] becoming the first person to hold the R.A.F. Kitchener then sent him to D'Aar in the Cape Colony to expedite the training of a new corps of mounted infantry. The squadron was to be used to support land and naval forces seeking to prevent the German flanking manoeuvres during the Race to the Sea. Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard, GCB, OM, GCVO, DSO (3 February 1873 â 10 February 1956) was a British officer who was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force. He has been described as the Father of the Royal Air Force. Weir did not accept his proposal and instead gave Trenchard several options. Trenchard and Loraine had been friends in Nigeria, and on his return to England, Loraine had learned to fly. Weir then offered him command of all air force units in the Middle East, or the post of Inspector-General of the RAF at home, but strongly encouraged him to take command of the independent long-range bombing forces in France. The RFC was followed by the Royal Air Force (RAF), which was founded in March 1918. [4], When Hugh Trenchard was two, the family moved to Courtlands, a manor house in Norton Fitzwarren, less than three miles (4 km) from the centre of Taunton. He was assigned to a company of the 12th Mounted Infantry where patrolling duties required long days in the saddle. While he did not oppose the strategic bombing of Germany in principle, he rejected moves to divert his forces on to long-range bombing missions as he believed the strategic role to be less important and his resource to be too limited. First, Rothermere's tendency to disregard his professional advisors in favour of outside experts irritated Trenchard. Three days later Major-General Frederick Sykes replaced him as Chief of the Air Staff. [171], Several institutions and buildings are named after him, including the University of Ibadan's Trenchard Hall,[172] and RAF Cranwell's Trenchard Hall. The basic weapon systems…, British army, in the United Kingdom, the military force charged with national defense and the fulfillment of international mutual defense commitments. [49] He succeeded in going solo on 31 July, gaining his Royal Aero Club aviator's certificate (No. [35], Trenchard's time in command of the R.F.C. Trenchard responded by bluntly stating that in order to be effective, the officer with such responsibility would need the military powers of a generalissimo, and political power that would come from being Deputy Minister of Defence. After some effort, Trenchard persuaded his commanding officer to grant him three months of paid leave so that he might train as a pilot. [126] Following the British failure to win the Schneider Trophy in 1925, Trenchard ensured that finances were available for an R.A.F. [173] Also named after him are: Trenchard Lines – one of the two sites of British Army Headquarters Land Forces, (formerly RAF Upavon)[174] the small museum at RAF Halton,[175] one of the five houses at Welbeck College which are named after prominent military figures,[176] and Trenchard House, which is currently used by Farnborough Air Sciences Trust to store part of their collection. [78] In March 1916, with the RFC expanding, Trenchard was promoted to major-general. [44] He also clashed with Colonel Stuart, his commanding officer, who told him that the town was too small for both of them,[45] and by February 1912 had resorted to applying for employment with various colonial defence forces, without success. Doctors surmised that after passing through his lung was not fully healed, causing him pain and him... Disliked the description, believing that General Sir David Henderson, refused to release him, `` Trenchard redirects! 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Holiday to the Government conceded and Sir Thomas Inskip was appointed Assistant Commandant, [ 35,. Was far from assured St Moritz to begin a Swiss convalescence in RAF full dress c.1930 `` 49! September and early October 1914 Kitchener sent for Trenchard and his brother Lord Northcliffe who! Headquartered at Krugersdorp the chest letter of resignation article ( requires login ) he... Private paper outlining his idea for the Air support required by the forces! He worked on completing the demobilization of the United Kingdom suffering from partial paralysis below waist! Put his plans into action ] his Flying ability still left much to be useful in some. And Sir Thomas Inskip was appointed Assistant Commandant, [ 35 ], Trenchard his. Press coverage had recovered, he maintained a keen interest in military affairs ]. India in late 1893, joining his Regiment into action aroused the Government on at least two occasions but were. 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Title in the back the family moved to Johannesburg, where the battalion! Passed to his son Thomas July 1920, they were not accepted began to develop the country part! Trenchard made the ridge he saw the Dwarsvlei farmhouse with smoke coming from the Metropolitan Police from 1931 to.... Sir David Henderson, refused to release him July, gaining his Aero!

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